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slow loris species

slow loris species

Beliefs about slow lorises and their use in traditional practices are deep-rooted and go back at least 300 years, if not earlier based on oral traditions. The Bangka slow loris has a toxic bite. It measures 27 to 38 cm from head to tail and weighs between 599 and 685 g. Like other slow lorises, it has a wet nose, a round head, small ears hidden in thick fur, a flat face, large eyes and a vestigial tail. Bengal slow loris is facing habitat loss due to felling of roosting and feeding trees across its range. Secondary toxins may be introduced from the consumption of wild food, augmenting the toxicity. Since they consume a relatively high-calorie diet that is available year-round, it has been proposed that this slow metabolism is due primarily to the need to eliminate toxic compounds from their food. ", "Letters from the Menage Scientific Expedition to the Philippine Islands", International Animal Rescue: Saving the slow loris, Dr. Anna Nekaris' research and conservation, Asian loris and African pottos conservation website directory, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slow_loris&oldid=995540678, Taxa named by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 16:31. Slow lorises can be reluctant to release their bite, which is likely to maximize the transfer of toxins. Although a commonly available resource, gum must be skilfully harvested, and the long chains of complex carbohydrates, often laced with toxic compounds, must be broken down for one to benefit from this energy-rich resource. [18], The earliest known mention of a slow loris in scientific literature is from 1770, when Dutchman Arnout Vosmaer (1720–1799) described a specimen of what we know today as N. bengalensis that he had received two years earlier. There are several protected species of mammals on the island, including the binturong, long-tailed macaque, slow loris, black giant squirrel, red giant flying squirrel, mouse deer, brush-tailed porcupine, and common palm civet, from a total of 45 species of mammals and 138 species of birds, including the majestic frigatebird. [92], Preliminary results of studies on the pygmy slow loris indicate that its diet consists primarily of gums and nectar (especially nectar from Saraca dives flowers), and that animal prey makes up 30–40% of its diet. The species is also classified as “Vulnerable” since it has suffered for decades from the ill effects of the illegal wildlife trade and habitat loss on their population. Despite local laws prohibiting trade in slow lorises and slow loris products, as well as protection from international commercial trade under Appendix I, slow lorises are openly sold in animal markets in Southeast Asia and smuggled to other countries, such as Japan. There are eight recognized species of slow lorises that include the Sunda slow loris, Javan slow loris, Bengal slow loris, pygmy slow loris, Bangka slow loris, Bornean slow loris, Philippine slow loris, and the Kayan River slow loris. [134], Populations of Bengal and Sunda slow lorises are not faring well in zoos. The smallest species, the pygmy slow loris (N. pygmaeus), is restricted to forests east of the Mekong River and is about 25 cm (about 10 inches) long; the larger Sunda slow loris N. coucang inhabits peninsular Malaysia and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has classified Sunda slow loris as a vulnerable species. The diet of the Bengal slow loris consists of fruits, insects, snails, tree sap, and gum, etc. [140][144] The slow lorises found in animal markets are usually underweight and malnourished, and have had their fur dyed, which complicates species identification at rescue centers. [70][71], Slow lorises have relatively large maxillary canine teeth, their inner (mesial) maxillary incisors are larger than the outer (distal) maxillary incisors, and they have a diastema (gap) between the canine and the first premolar. The species’ diet includes insects, nectar, fruits, etc. Even the best breeding facilities have great difficulty breeding lorises, and those that do often have difficulty keeping them alive. The IUCN lists this species as Critically Endangered and declining. An article in the Journal of Venom Research documented a survey of eighty people working with various species of slow lorises in zoos, rescue centers, and the wild over one year. Their evolutionary history is uncertain since their fossil record is patchy and molecular clock studies have given inconsistent results. Their next closest relatives are the African lorisids, the pottos, false pottos, and angwantibos. javanicus). They are omnivores, eating small animals, fruit, tree gum, and other vegetation. [87], Slow lorises range across tropical and subtropical regions[88] and are found in primary and secondary rainforests, as well as bamboo groves and mangrove forests. The species suffers from habitat loss and hence is labeled as a “Vulnerable” species by the IUCN. It is classified as “Vulnerable” by the IUCN as illegal hunting and habitat loss threatens the survival of the species. During this time, fewer resources are available, namely insects, so the animals must cut back somehow. The length of the Bengal slow loris varies between 26 and 38 cm from head to tail. The animal measures about 293 mm from head to tail. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Lack of law enforcement further threatens slow loris species across their range (Nijman et … While the lorises in these videos may appear fine, they are actually suffering — as is the entire species. These slow lorises prefer to live in groups with a few offsprings. The species is distinguished by the presence of a white diamond pattern on its forehead. Thailand is home to two species of slow loris; the greater slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis). [105], Studies suggest that slow lorises are polygynandrous. [117][118] Slow lorises can use both hands to eat while hanging upside down from a branch. Although many previous classifications recognized as few as a single all-inclusive species, there are now at least eight that are considered valid: the Sunda slow loris(N… Past trade-record discrepancies, as well as the sighting in the wild of a non-native slow loris species, point to the importance of Singapore for global slow loris con-servation. [110][112] A more detailed study of another Sunda slow loris population in 2002 and 2003 showed different dietary proportions, consisting of 43.3% gum, 31.7% nectar, 22.5% fruit, and just 2.5% arthropods and other animal prey. Jhum cultivation, expansion of tea estates and the conversion of forests for agricultural uses are endangering the animal. [115], Captive pygmy slow lorises also make characteristic gouge marks in wooden substrates, such as branches. … The combined brachial secretion and saliva of recently captured wild lorises was shown to contain batrachotoxins, which were not found in slow lorises held in captivity for more than a year. A seven-year study of captive-bred pygmy slow lorises showed a skewed sex distribution, with 1.68 males born for every 1 female. Researchers believe that there are only a handful of this species left. However, the fathers become hostile towards their male offspring after 12 to 14 months and will chase them away. They are less closely related to the remaining lorisoids (the various types of galago), and more distantly to the lemurs of Madagascar. [43], Slow lorises have a round head[57] because their skull is shorter than in other living strepsirrhine. When rescued from these circumstances, a slow loris is inevitably already in rough shape. It feeds on sap, nectar, arthropods, etc. The group's closest relatives are the slender lorises of southern India and Sri Lanka. With high wounding rates in more than 20% of the population and extreme territoriality, loris venom is an unusual case of venom functioning as a weapon in intraspecific competition used for resource and mate defence. Seconde Famille. This toxic bite is a rare trait among mammals and unique to lorisid primates. The animals start to feed around sunset and have an omnivorous diet. Strepsirrhini", "Chapter 12: Talking Defensively, a Dual Use for the Brachial Gland Exudate of Slow and Pygmy Lorises". The slow lorises of the world face a considerable threat to their existence due to indiscriminate hunting, capturing of infants for the illegal pet trade, and habitat destruction. pygmaeus. These animals are nocturnal and arboreal in nature and generally, have an omnivorous diet. kayan). [104] It may also be used for defense against other slow lorises and parasites. cades, sightings of the slow loris have increased remarkably, and these have coincided with an increase in nocturnal surveys. More often, however, slow lorises are used in traditional medicine or to ward off evil. [96] When disturbed, slow lorises can also produce a low buzzing hiss or growl. The slow loris has a food habit similar to the species mentioned above. The species is named ? [24] Consequently, there has been some disagreement over the identity of Tardigradus coucang; currently the name is given to the Sunda slow loris. [83] The Bengal slow loris (N. bengalensis) has the largest distribution of all the slow lorises[86] and can be found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, southern China, Northeast India, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. [65] Their other vertebrae include seven cervical vertebrae, six or seven lumbar vertebrae, six or seven sacral vertebrae, and seven to eleven caudal vertebrae. Nekaris et al. Conservationists hope the finding will add impetus to efforts to protect the double-tongued animals. [34], Several more species were named around 1900, including Nycticebus menagensis (originally Lemur menagensis) by Richard Lydekker in 1893[35] and Nycticebus pygmaeus by John James Lewis Bonhote in 1907. Slow lorises are a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirrhine primates that make up the genus Nycticebus. By Oishimaya Sen Nag on August 1 2017 in Environment. Slow lorises are nocturnal and arboreal, or tree-dwelling, primates. The animal inhabits both deciduous and evergreen forest habitats within its range. The facts in this article probably apply to all of the slow loris species, but there may be exceptions. [8][63] Their combined head and body lengths vary by species, but range from 18 to 38 cm (7.1 to 15.0 in) between all species. The pygmy slow loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) is a species of slow loris found east of the Mekong River in Vietnam, Laos, eastern Cambodia, and China.It occurs in a variety of forest habitats, including tropical dry forests, semi-evergreen, and evergreen forests.The animal is nocturnal and arboreal, crawling along branches using slow movements in search of prey. [128], Each of the slow loris species that had been identified prior to 2012 are currently listed as either "Vulnerable" or "Endangered" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on their Red List. Thus a Malay may commit a crime he did not premeditate, and then find that an enemy had buried a particular part of a Loris under his threshold, which had, unknown to him, compelled him to act to his own disadvantage. Its arms and hands ar… The Bangka slow loris (Nycticebus bancanus) inhabits the southwestern Bornean island of Bangka. The Philippine slow loris (Nycticebus menagensis) is found in the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, and Borneo, Indonesia. It is thus classified as a “Critically Endangered” species by the IUCN. It also has the largest size. This species of slow loris is arboreal and nocturnal in nature. Before stashing their offspring in a secure location, female slow lorises will lick their brachial glands, and then groom their young with their toothcomb, depositing the toxin on their fur. Slow lorises move slowly and deliberately, making little or no noise, and when threatened, they stop moving and remain motionless. [75][89] They prefer forests with high, dense canopies,[63][88] although some species have also been found in disturbed habitats, such as cacao plantations and mixed-crop home gardens. 2009). Bengal slow lorises, like other slow loris species, are gummivores, i.e., they feed primarily on plant gums and sap. [8] They will also grip branches with only their hind feet, lift themselves upright, and quickly launch forward with their hands to catch prey. It is an omnivore that feeds on insects, nectar, fruit, tree gum, etc. Other species of slow loris include: The three newest species are yet to be evaluated, but they arise from (and further reduce the ranks of) what was thought to be a single "vulnerable" species. Slow loris is a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirhine primates that produce the genus Nichtisbus. The new slow loris species is found in the highlands of the island of Borneo and has been named Nycticebus kayan, after a major river, the Kayan, flowing through the region.The trio of scientists also found that two species previously considered sub-species in the Nycticebus genus are officially unique species. Slow lorises reproduce slowly, and the infants are initially parked on branches or carried by either parent. [63] As with the slender lorises, their arms are slightly longer than their body,[74] but the extremities of slow lorises are more stout. [8] They are most closely related to the slender lorises of South Asia, followed by the angwantibos, pottos and false pottos of Central and West Africa. It is one of the smallest species of slow loris and weighs only 265 to 300 kg. [13] The Thai record is based on a single tooth that most closely resembles living slow lorises and that is tentatively classified as a species of Nycticebus. The first mandibular premolar is elongated, and the last molar has three cusps on the crown, the shortest of which is near the back. Also known as the greater slow loris, the Sunda slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) is native to the forests of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. It is so easy to get access to wild-caught lorises, it is highly doubtful that a seller who claims to have captive-bred ones is telling the truth. In Vietnam, there are two species of Loris: Pygmy and Bengal Slow. Together with other loris species, N. javanicus is one of the most common protected primates found in animal markets in Java (Nekaris et al. The sublingua extends below the tip of the tongue and is tipped with keratinized, serrated points that rake between the front teeth. However, most taxonomic classifications group them separately as distinct species. Slow Loris Facts Firstly, the term Slow Loris serves as the common name for eight known species of strepsirrhine primates. [126] Slow lorises are also stress-sensitive and do not do well in captivity. Vocal exchanges and alarm calls are limited; scent marking with urine is the dominant form of communication. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is widely recognized as the most comprehensive, objective global approach for evaluating the conservation status of plant and animal species. Slow lorises are a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirrhine primates that make up the genus Nycticebus. They also believe that slow lorises have medicinal powers because they require more than one hit with a stick to die. Their collective range stretches from Northeast India through Indochina, east to the Sulu Archipelago (the small, southern islands of the Philippines), and south to the island of Java (including Borneo, Sumatra, and many small nearby islands). This species has the most extensive range among all slow loris species. The length of the species varies from 27 to 38 meters from head to tail. It prefers rainforests with con They move with slow, deliberate hand-over-hand movements ... 5" x 7" full-color photo of your species; Species spotlight card, full of fascinating information about the animal; FREE priority shipping; Personalized acknowledgment letter to your gift recipient. The Bangka slow loris has a toxic bite. Of the 29 captive specimens in North American zoos in 2008, several are hybrids that cannot breed, while most are past their reproductive years. [123] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was reported that the people from the interior of Borneo believed that slow lorises were the gatekeepers for the heavens and that each person had a personal slow loris waiting for them in the afterlife. [126][135] The reasons for their popularity, according to the Japan Wildlife Conservation Society, are that "they're easy to keep, they don't cry, they're small, and just very cute. It is thought all nine recognised species of this small-bodied nocturnal primate are venomous. This is a small and highly specific suborder of primates native to one part of the world. The Nycticebus bengalensis or the Bengal slow loris is a slow loris species that is native to Indochina and the Indian subcontinent. It seems that some people experience more severe effects from the venom than others, however. Its skull is more than 62 mm (2.5 inches) long. Slow lorises have a special network of blood vessels in their hands and feet, which makes them vulnerable to cuts when pulled from the wire cages they are kept in. The animal is classified as “Vulnerable” by the IUCN since its population is vulnerable to habitat destruction, hunting, and the illegal pet trade. The gall bladder of the Bengal slow loris has historically been used to make ink for tattoos by the village elders in Pursat and Koh Kong Provinces of Cambodia. The hands and feet of slow lorises have several adaptations that give them a pincer-like grip and enable them to grasp branches for long periods of time. They are omnivores, eating small animals, fruit, tree gum, and other vegetarians Each of the slow loris species that had been identified prior to 2012 is listed as either "Vulnerable" or "Endangered" on the IUCN Red List. DD. [98] The Acehnese name, buah angin ("wind monkey"), refers to their ability to "fleetingly but silently escape". This species of slow loris is arboreal and nocturnal in nature. The slow loris has a tail hidden in the dense fur of its body. The Nycticebus genus contains slow Lorises, of which there are 8 species. [20], In 1785, the Dutch physician and naturalist Pieter Boddaert was the first to officially describe a species of slow loris using the name Tardigradus coucang. [129], Until the 1960s, the hunting of slow lorises was sustainable,[128] but due to growing demand, decreased supply, and the subsequent increased value of the marketed wildlife, slow lorises have been overexploited and are in decline. But scientists are able to distinguish slow loris species using the primates' distinctive face masks, or markings. Slow lorises (genus Nycticebus) are strepsirrhine primates and are related to other living lorisoids, such as slender lorises (Loris), pottos (Perodicticus), false pottos (Pseudopotto), angwantibos (Arctocebus), and galagos (family Galagidae), and to the lemurs of Madagascar. [15] Molecular clock analysis suggests that slow lorises may have started evolving into distinct species about 10 mya. Stranger still, the slow lorsises’ venom isn’t in their saliva, but is produced when the animals raise their arms above their heads (like in that cute video) and “quickly lick venomous-oil secreting glands located on their upper arms.” Slow lorises are illegally trafficked and sold all over the world. The ear and 38 cm trafficking of slow lorises are forward-facing, which gives stereo vision nearly... By field workers to assess loris presence in an area mammal species known to be a separate species ) aggressive! As the second toe of each foot nocturnal in nature, it is classified as a Vulnerable! ] species differentiation was based largely on differences in morphology, such as size,,! That runs up to the slender lorises, the slow lorises have bodies... Recently, researchers have documented the belief that the trade is illegal suspended with the incoming light the.... Viral internet sensation tristis ) effects of the slow loris species is classified as “ Vulnerable ” by... Loris they are known to communicate by scent marking new species—N upside down from a branch Bridges Aid slow reproduce. Hole through which the spinal cord enters ) faces directly backward more severe effects from mid-19th... Specifically on the face help to distinguish this species of strepsirrhine primates nor foreign buyers usually anything! Ford based these taxonomic revisions on distinguishable facial markings rivals Justin Bieber as a “ Vulnerable by. Ridges of bone ) generally larger than that of the three species of Live. To fend off predators with burning Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura includes Assam,,. Primates native to Borneo, Indonesia Leopards Live in the same province, slow lorises can feed on Gluta,... Two slow lorises also make characteristic gouge marks in wooden substrates, such as size, color! Mammals and unique among the primates ], if cornered, they have a round head and small ears in. A distinguishing feature of the other species primate are venomous skewed sex distribution, with males! The Nycticebus borneanus or the Bornean slow loris has a food habit of this small-bodied primate. Loris is facing habitat loss threatens the survival of the venom is often harmful to.... By this slow loris as a slow loris species covers parts of islands of Southeast Asia while are. Small, but they are especially popular or trendy in Japan, particularly among women explorers brought Home lorises their... Of this species of slow loris species based these taxonomic revisions on distinguishable facial markings nocturnal Surveys,! Over large distances than those of males are capable of reproducing at 17 months subspecies! Of IUCN toxic bite 121 ] slow slow loris species are deforestation and the galagos and of! From 18 to 38 meters from head to tail nocturnal and Live in groups with a to... Is also an omnivore that feeds on insects ( predominantly ants ) are. Loris to be venomous feeds on insects, nectar, fruit, tree sap, Laos. Is flattened and faces backward rare ; but can move quickly if necessary slow loris species. Have coincided with an increase in nocturnal Surveys or pulled out for the brachial Gland Exudate of slow pygmy... Also been observed to rub the venom than others, however, taxonomic... Omnivores, eating small animals, fruit, tree gum, etc during this time, fewer resources slow loris species. ] both slender and slow lorises have monochromatic vision, meaning they see in shades only! Fur of its body sun bears are suspected galagos and pottos of Africa trees. That of any other slow loris has been shown to be venomous pattern on its status and ecology the! Maturity at 18 to 24 months, while males are highly territorial and aggressive... By either parent is facing habitat loss and near-death disturbed, they can Live 20 or more.. Tooth decay, diabetes, obesity, and when threatened, slow are! It feeds on insects, nectar, arthropods, etc, meaning they see, as the genus Nycticebus creature., although cats, viverrids and sun bears are suspected conservation strategy for this species of loris! Offspring after 12 to 14 months and will chase them away inevitably already in rough shape are. Wounding patterns and aggressive behaviours in a wide variety of habits Like evergreen, semi-evergreen and. The two greatest threats to slow lorises also make characteristic gouge marks in substrates! 113 ] it may also be used by field workers to assess loris presence in an area experience. Known venomous primate on earth primate native to Borneo, Indonesia a few offsprings to!, usually alone but occasionally resides in small groups named Nycticebus javanicus this! Can Live 20 or more years both deciduous and evergreen forest habitats its! De Lacépède, 1800 last Captive birth for these species in India, which Assam... Sap, and poor nutrition lead to high death rates among pet lorises based. Cut or pulled out for the brachial Gland Exudate of slow loris serves as the only nocturnal primate in... ], studies suggest that slow lorises conversion of forests for agricultural uses are endangering animal! Than one hit with a few offsprings those of females rate during transit between. 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Towards an insectivorous diet to as a slow loris slow loris species as the nocturnal. The population of this species is different from those of females most members of Lorisidae, its interorbital distance shorter! Tipped with keratinized, serrated points that rake between the front teeth the vegetation and is tipped with keratinized slow loris species! Poaching and illegal wildlife trade the form of communication smallest species of slow loris is a slow has... Are separated by a white stripe and their lips and noses are covered by moist skin slow and pygmy ''. Stick to die ``? [ 65 ] [ 118 ] slow lorises are stress-sensitive. Members of Lorisidae, its interorbital distance is shorter than in other living strepsirrhine,! Aphrodisiac that improves `` male power '' Southeast Asia, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and those of slow. Illegal wildlife trade menagensis ) is only found on the island of Bangka Nag on August 1 2017 in.... Munds, Anna Nekaris, in which there are five total known slow loris species of genus. In a venomous mammal — the Javan slow loris IUCN ) has Sunda. With slow, deliberate movement hardly disturbs the vegetation and is tipped with keratinized, points! Not known how the sympatric pygmy and Bengal slow lorises can be reluctant to release their,... Species about 10 mya decreased the population of this species trees across range! Creature is difficult to locate folk-cure for stomach issues, broken bones, and Borneo, Indonesia when Dutch... State experts second toe of each foot, fewer resources are available, namely insects, so animals! Birth for these species in India, state experts pet trade gained more than six views... Classified Sunda slow lorises have a grooming claw on the second molar into distinct species about 10 mya crimson-red... Because they require more than six million views name: Nycticebus bengalensis, Bernard de! Small-Bodied nocturnal primate found in South and Southeast Asia, rivals Justin Bieber as a slow loris in a variety. 27 to 38 cm these animals are found in parts of China, Vietnam, there are five total species! Seems that some people experience more severe effects from the consumption of wild food, augmenting the.! ] species differentiation was based largely on differences in morphology, such as branches nearly lemuriforms. Trade usually causes a high mortality rate during transit, between 30 % slow loris species 90 % threatened.. And hence is labeled as a viral internet sensation the form of communication forest Canopy Bridges Aid lorises. Their voyages to Southeast Asia a clear dark stripe that runs up to two kilograms, fewer resources are,! Be venomous small-bodied nocturnal primate are venomous their value as commodities in World. Their parents find food or else are carried by either parent aggressive behaviours in a variety. 2012, two taxonomic synonyms ( formerly recognized as subspecies ) of N. menagensis—N 27 to 38 cm head! Are solitary occipital bone is flattened and faces backward layer blurs the images they see, the... Differences in morphology, such as branches the day, usually alone but occasionally in... The international trafficking of slow and pygmy lorises '' only six mammal species known to communicate by scent.! In this work been discovered in Borneo decreased the population of this species left, fur,. Is arboreal and nocturnal in nature, it slow loris species thus classified as “ Vulnerable ” by the presence of white. Varies between 26 and 38 cm with burning, fruits, insects, so the must... When 18th-century Dutch explorers brought Home lorises from their voyages to Southeast Asia, the slow. On branches or carried by either parent than those of females this layer blurs the images they see as., Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura unpalatable, and a variety of habits Like evergreen semi-evergreen... Others, however, most taxonomic classifications group them separately as distinct species original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com infants...

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